INTRO TO CBD
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non- addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.
CBD is closely related to another important medicinally active phytocannabinoid: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound that causes the high that cannabis is famous for. These are the two components of cannabis that have been most studied by scientists.
Both CBD and THC have significant therapeutic attributes. But unlike THC, CBD does not make a person feel “high” or intoxicated. That’s because CBD and THC act in different ways on different receptors in the brain and body.
CBD has the potential to lessen the psychoactive effects of THC, depending on how much of each compound is consumed. Many people want the health benefits of cannabis without the high – which is where cannabinoids like CBD can come into play, as they produce no psychoactive effects, what so ever.
The fact that CBD is therapeutically potent, non-intoxicating, as well as easy to take, makes it an appealing treatment option for those who are cautious about trying cannabis for the first time.
CBD: THE MULTIPURPOSE MOLECULE
Many people are seeking alternatives to pharmaceuticals with harsh side effects – medicine more in sync with natural processes. By tapping into how we function biologically on a deep level, CBD can provide relief from stress, inflammation and many other conditions. Extensive scientific research – much of it sponsored by the U.S. government – and mounting anecdotal accounts from patients and physicians highlight CBD’s potential (stressing on ‘potential”) as a treatment for a wide range of maladies, including (but not limited to):
- Autoimmune diseases (inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis)
- Neurological conditions (Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington’s chorea, traumatic brain injury)
- Reducing Symptoms of Metabolic syndromes (like diabetes)
- Neuropsychiatric illness (autism, ADHD, PTSD)
- Gut disorders (colitis, Crohn’s)
- Cardiovascular dysfunction (atherosclerosis, arrhythmia)
- Skin disease (acne, dermatitis, psoriasis)
CBD has proven neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer properties are being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere. A 2010 brain cancer study by California scientists found that CBD “enhances the inhibitory effects of THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival.” This means that CBD has the potential to make THC even more potent as an anticancer substance. Also in 2010, German researchers reported that CBD stimulates neurogenesis, the growth of new brain cells, in adult mammals.
HOW DOES CBD WORK?
CBD and other Phytocannabinoids interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” – so named because of their similarity to compounds found in the cannabis plant. These
“endocannabinoids” are part of what scientists refer to as the “endocannabinoid system.”
The discovery of the endocannabinoid system has significantly advanced our understanding of health and disease. It has major implications for nearly every area of medical science and helps to explain how and why CBD and other Phytocannabinoids are such versatile compounds – and why cannabis is such a widely consumed plant, despite its legal status.
The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in regulating a broad range of physiological processes that affect our everyday experience – our mood, our energy level, our intestinal fortitude, immune activity, blood pressure, bone density, glucose metabolism, how we experience pain, stress, hunger, and more.
What happens if the endocannabinoid system doesn’t function properly? What are the consequences of a chronically deficient or overactive endocannabinoid system? In a word, disease.
Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggested in a 2014 publication.
By modulating the endocannabinoid system and enhancing endocannabinoid tone, CBD and THC can slow – or in some cases stop – disease progression.
THE CBD CHALLENGE
CBD is a molecule, not a miracle. Many people could benefit significantly from legal access to a wide range of cannabis remedies, not just low-THC or no- THC products. CBD alone may not always do the trick. There is compelling evidence that CBD works best in combination with THC and the full spectrum of other cannabis components.
Figuring out how to optimize one’s therapeutic use of cannabis is the driving force behind the great laboratory experiment in democracy known as medical marijuana that’s been unfolding state-by-state and country-by-country in recent years.
The advent of potent cannabis oil concentrates, non-intoxicating CBD-rich products, and innovative, smokeless delivery systems has transformed the therapeutic landscape and changed the public conversation about cannabis.
It’s no longer a matter of debating whether cannabis has merit as an herbal medication – today the key challenge is discerning how to utilize cannabis for maximum therapeutic benefit. Given its low-risk profile, many people are using CBD as an add-on therapy to their existing treatment plans.
But most health professionals know little about CBD or cannabis therapeutics and they lack sufficient expertise to adequately counsel patients regarding dosage, modes of administration, CBD/THC/Phytocannabinoid synergies, and any risk factors, including interactions with other drugs.
Instead, the onus has been on a loose-knit community of self-reliant patients, supportive families and a few pioneer physicians who’ve learned a lot through trial and error and shared information about how to navigate promising avenues of cannabis therapy.
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO USE CANNABIS?
Cannabis and its extracts, like CBD oil, can be consumed in an astounding number of ways. Most options fall into a few general categories, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. You’ll experience different effects if you smoke CBD-rich flower or vape a THC-rich cartridge; swallow a gelcap or drop CBD oil under your tongue.
Everybody processes cannabis and cannabinoids a little differently. The diversity of human experience means that finding your ideal form of cannabis consumption may take some experimentation.
The key differences between ways of using cannabis pertain to these questions:
- Onset: How quickly will cannabinoids begin to work?
- Dose: What’s a reasonable starting dose?
- Distribution: Which parts of the body will be most affected?
- Duration: How long will the effects last?
The dosage required, of course, depends on the quality of the product and the reason for its use. The doses we describe below are based on initially managing the psychoactivity of THC.
INHALATION: SMOKING AND VAPING
- Onset: Seconds to minutes.
- Dose: As little as a puff may be necessary. A typical pre-roll is 0.3 – 1.0 grams of cannabis.
- Distribution: Affects the lungs immediately, then the heart and brain, then is distributed fairly evenly throughout the body.
- Duration: Most effects, including psychoactivity (if THC rich), begin to subside after 2-4 hours.
When vapor or smoke is inhaled through the lungs, the chemical compounds are sent to the brain before getting metabolized by the liver. This makes inhalation the fastest method for administering cannabis. A study from 1986 in five males found an estimated mean bioavailability of 31%, with a minimum of 11% and a maximum of 45%. Usually, between 20-30% of the phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD are absorbed when processing through the lungs via inhalation. Also, it’s good to know that the heat from either smoking or vaporizing cannabis converts the acid cannabinoids (THCA, CBDA, CBGA, etc) into their neutral forms (THC, CBD, CBG, etc) via decarboxylation.
The short onset and duration make inhalation appropriate for acute problems (e.g. nausea, parkinsons or acute pain). The near-immediate onset also allows patients to titrate (adjust) and quickly find a desired dose. For those new to THC, overdose (getting too high) is short-lived when inhaling compared to other methods.
SMOKING VS. VAPING, FLOWER VS. OIL
One inhales cannabinoids by smoking or vaporizing flower. Cannabis oil extracts can also be vaporized or dabbed. The main issue with smoking is that smoke can be harmful to the lungs. Although smoking cannabis is not associated with lung cancer or COPD, there are health issues associated with breathing any kind of smoke (e.g. chronic cough, congestion, asthma). The cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) appears not to vaporize well, so smoking or non-inhaled administration methods may be necessary to get benefits from THCV.
Vaporizing, compared with smoking, has a slightly slower onset but facilitates better absorption. Although vaping is generally better for the lungs (when vaping pure, unadulterated extracts/flower), thinning agents and other additives in oil extracts and cartridges can break down into carcinogens when heated in poorly-made systems/products. This is a non-issue when vaporizing flower or pure extracts (with no additives mixed into them), like organic hemp flower, pure distillates and isolates.
EDIBLES / CAPSULES
- Onset: 1-3 hours.
- Dose: The threshold for mild psychoactive effects is 2-3 mg THC in most new users. Doses of CBD-rich products range from 5 mg to hundreds of milligrams. 
- Distribution: Absorbed through the gut and modified in the liver, then spreads fairly evenly throughout the body.
- Duration: Psychoactive effects subside after about 6-8 hours in most people. Other effects may last up to 12 hours.
Ingested cannabinoids are absorbed through the intestines and sent to the liver. It takes about an hour to feel effects when taken on an empty stomach, or up to three hours with food. People should not re-dose edibles for at least three hours after ingestion.
On the way to the liver, cannabinoids will interact with receptors in the gut, so the effect on conditions like inflammatory bowel disease will be more pronounced. Once in the liver, three enzymes will start to modify THC and CBD in a process called “first-pass metabolism.” THC is largely converted to 11-OH-THC, which appears to cause a stronger high than THC. This, along with the long duration of edibles, is why new users should become comfortable with THC’s psychoactive effects before using edibles containing more than 5 mg of THC. The longer-lasting effect of edibles and capsules make them suitable for many chronic conditions.
Capsules are best for stomach issues like IBD, IBS, GI issues, Crohn’s disease, due to the fact that your stomach is the first place to absorb the CBD.
UNDER THE TONGUE / SUBLINGUAL AND ORAL-MUCOSAL TINCTURES
- Onset: 15 minutes to an hour.
- Dose: 2.5-5 mg of CBD or THC is a common starting dose. This could cause a slight high in new users, as THC’s threshold for producing psychoactive effects is 2-3 mg. 
- Distribution: Absorbed into the bloodstream via the mouth, then distributes evenly.
- Duration: After 6-8 hours, most of the CBD has been metabolized or eliminated from the body.
Oral-mucosal drugs are absorbed directly into the blood vessels in the mouth and under the tongue. When placed under the tongue, the patient should try to wait at least one minute before swallowing (see Accidental Ingestion below.) Effects usually start after 15-30 minutes and peak around an hour and a half after administration. For consistency, it is best to avoid eating immediately before or after using a tincture. 
Oral mucosal tinctures usually come in one of two forms: an under-the-tongue spray or a dropper with a marking at a specific volume (usually by the .25ml). This allows for consistent, measurable dosing. Pay close attention to the labels on these products. Products should be labeled with the dose of cannabinoids per spray or per ml, as well as the recommended dosages.
Tinctures involve a binding agent (such as fats or oils like MCT, sesame oil or hemp oil) to help deliver the active cannabinoids in a bioavailable fashion.  Some of the adverse side effects attributed to cannabis extracts may actually be due to ingesting large amounts of the carrier oil.
Although sublingual tinctures can provide rapid and precise dosing, they are often confusing for patients. If you place CBD oil under the tongue but then swallow immediately, your body will process most of it like an edible (via your liver and kidneys). This means that you will receive a lower dose over a longer period of time.
With CBD products, this may just make for a weaker effect when consuming the same mg edibly vs sublingually; though, like THC, If a large dose is consumed edible vs sublingually, the effects can be stronger and last longer.
Low doses of cannabinoids have not been shown to cause problematic interactions with other drugs. When people start using hundreds or thousands of milligrams of CBD, however, the body may struggle to break down the other pharmaceuticals a person is taking. But such high doses are not normally required for therapeutic benefit when using quality products. People with certain conditions or those who can only access CBD isolates may need to use large doses. Tell your doctor if you are taking high doses of CBD, so that they can help manage potential cannabinoid-drug interactions.
WHERE DOES CBD OIL COME FROM?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of more than 100 unique “cannabinoid” compounds that are found in the cannabis plant. The sticky, gooey, resinous crystals formed on cannabis flowers contain the most concentrated percentages of cannabinoids. These tiny, mushroom-shaped “trichomes” are where the majority of the magic/cannabinoids/terpenes are produced/formed.
Trichomes are specialized glandular structures that contain a treasure trove of oily, medicinal compounds, including CBD, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), other phytocannabinoids and various aromatic terpenes.
Why does cannabis create these oily compounds & What does the resin do for the plant?
The oily trichomes protect the plant from heat and ultraviolet radiation. The oil also has antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties that deter predators. The stickiness of the resin also provides another defensive layer by potentially trapping said destructive pests/predators from doing more harm. That aside, the true main purpose of these trichomes, other than producing medicinal compounds beneficial to animals and other organisms, are to catch the pollen from males cannabis plants, which is wholly necessary for breeding & breeding practices, etc.
As it happens, the same oily resin (trichomes) that assist in protecting the plant includes components that are beneficial for human health and the ECS. CBD, a non-intoxicating compound, has shown promise in treating and managing the symptoms of a broad range of ailments. Ditto for THC, and other Phytocannabinoids.
3 Different types of CBD
Full Spectrum CBD (<0.3% thc in non medicinal/recreational states)
Full spectrum means that an oil or product contains all the cannabinoids and other chemical compounds that are naturally occurring in the cannabis plant. Quality full spectrum CBD products are typically high in CBD with minor cannabinoids, which includes THC (less than 0.3%). True full spectrum extracts also include flavonoids, phenolic compounds (terpenes) as well as fatty acids like Omega-3. The overall composition of full spectrum is synonymous with the “entourage effect” – which refers to the increased effectiveness of these products due to the different cannabinoids and other chemical compounds working synergistically. Full spectrum products are commonly considered more effective than products that are broad spectrum or isolate products.
Broad-Spectrum CBD (no thc)
Broad-spectrum CBD is near a full-spectrum option, while abstaining from THC.
It offers similar entourage benefits associated with full-spectrum CBD, without the risk of consuming traceable amounts of THC.
Broad-spectrum CBD is an excellent choice for individuals that can’t have any traces of THC in their systems, whether for legal purposes or anything else, but want to get a closer efficacy to full spectrum options. Note: Not all broad spectrum will be 100% THC free.
CBD Isolate (Absolutely No THC)
CBD isolate is a pure, crystalline powder that contains 99+% pure Cannabidiol.
All the plant matter contained in the hemp plant, including oils, waxes, chlorophyll, and more are removed, offering a finished product that’s pure CBD and nothing more.
Different types and uses for CBD
Sublingual – Under the tongue hold for 45 seconds to 1 min direct to bloodstream. Most popular way of taking cbd. Helps with sleep, anxiety stress, inflammation, neurological disorders. Seizures, relaxation and many more aliments.
Topicals – Concentrated area of pain (i.e back, neck, knee, shoulder) Primarily NO THC will absorb into the bloodstream. (the ones we sell) works a lot better when taken with a sublingual or water soluble.
Capsules/ Gummies – Metabolize through one’s liver, kidneys and stomach. Once Metabolized, the body will begin to absorb the active cannabinoids. When consumed this way, the liver absorbs between 6-13% of a product’s potency.
Gummies – If you let the gummy dissolve in the mouth and do not simply chew and swallow, you will increase the rate and percentage of absorption.
CBD water soluble – Your body is made up of about 76% water. Water-soluble Nano Emulsions spread and absorb faster in the human body. it possesses a considerably higher bioavailability, and faster relief time (but with a slightly shorter half life, as it can be metabolized faster).
CBD Flower – All flower is true full spectrum, which means it contains 0.3% THC or less (without fail); though, there’s not enough THC to have much if any psychotropic effect. Flower looks, smells, and tastes much like THC flower, but without the psychoactive results (because of the low levels of THC). Because of some of the very unique terpene profiles hemp genetics have, you will notice some differences in the scent and flavor of hemp cannabis in comparison to more traditional THC rich genetics.
The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All information presented here is not meant as a substitute for or alternative to information from healthcare practitioners. Please consult your healthcare professional about potential interactions or other possible complications before using any product. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires this notice.
All of products contain less than 0.3% THC. We are not legally able to make any recommendations or guarantees regarding drug tests on THC free products. If that is a concern, we would recommend not consuming any CBD products and/or doing some further research at ProjectCBD.org, before making the decision to consume any CBD.
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